Seismogeodesy is the optimal real-time integration of high-rate GNSS and seismic data (Bock et al. 2011). Applications include earthquake and local tsunami warning, rapid response systems and structural health monitoring (Melgar et al., 2011; Goldberg et al., 2017, Saunders et al., 2016). To this end, SOPAC has developed, in house and with NASA funding, a seismogeodetic system to economically upgrade existing GNSS stations or to establish new seismogeodetic stations. The system consists of an SIO Geodetic Module and MEMS Accelerometer package (GAP) described below. The Geodetic Module is also able to support GNSS meteorology with the addition of the SIO MEMS MetSensor.
SOPAC Seismogeodetic Data Flow
The graphic below shows the flow of GNSS and accelerometer data from the SIO Geodetic Module and MEMS Accelerometer package (GAP) to the precise point positioning (PPP) analysis modules, and then output to a real-time applications, e.g., local tsunami warning. The GNSS data are output in RTCM 3 format. The accelerometer data are retrieved by the GAPs Client.
Kalman Filter for GNSS and Seismic Data
Bock, Y., D. Melgar, B. W. Crowell (2011), Real-Time Strong-Motion Broadband Displacements from Collocated GPS and Accelerometers, Bull. Seismol. Soc. Am., 101, 2904-2925, doi: 10.1785/0120110007.
Goldberg, D., Y. Bock (2017), Self-contained local broadband seismogeodetic early warning system: Detection and location, J. Geophys. Res. Solid Earth, 122, 4, 3197-3220, doi:10.1002/2016JB013766.
Melgar, D., B. W. Crowell, Y. Bock, and J. S. Haase (2013), Rapid modeling of the 2011 Mw 9.0 Tohoku-oki earthquake with seismogeodesy, Geophys. Res. Lett., 40, 1-6. doi:10.1002/grl.50590
Saunders, J. K., D. E. Goldberg, J. S. Haase, D. G. Offield, Y. Bock, D. Melgar, J. Restrepo, R. B. Fleischman, A. Nema, J. Geng, C. Walls, D. Mann, G. Mattioli (2016), Seismogeodesy using GNSS and low-cost MEMS accelerometers: perspectives for earthquake early warning and rapid response, Bull. Seismol. Soc. Am., 106, 6, 2469–2489, doi: 10.1785/0120160062.